Erickson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Stage One: Trust v. Mistrust
-Does the child believe its caregivers to be reliable?
Stage Two: Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt
-Child needs to learn to explore the world.
-Bad if the parent is too smothering or completely neglectful.
Stage Three: Initiative v. Guilt
-Can the child plan or do things on his own, such as dress him or herself.
-If "guilty" about making his or her own choices, the child will not function well.
-Erikson has a positive outlook on this stage, saying that most guilt is quickly compensated by a sense of accomplishment.
Stage Four: Industry v. Inferiority
-Child comparing self worth to others (such as in a classroom environment).
-Child can recognize major disparities in personal abilities relative to other children.
-Erikson places some emphasis on the teacher, who should ensure that children do not feel inferior.
Stage Five: Identity v. Identity Diffusion
-Questioning of self. Who am I, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life?
-Erikson believes that if the parents allow the child to explore, they will conclude their own identity. However, if the parents continually push him/her to conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion.
Stage Six: Intimacy v. Isolation
-Who do I want to be with or date, what am I going to do with my life? Will I settle down?
-This stage has begun to last longer as young adults choose to stay in school and not settle.
Stage Seven: Generativity v. Self-Absorption
-Adulthood / the mid-life crisis
-Measure accomplishments/failures. Am I satisfied or not?
-The need to assist the younger generation.
-Stagnation is the feeling of not having done anything to help the next generation.
Stage Eight: Integrity v. Disgust
-Some handle death well. Some can be bitter, unhappy, and/or dissatisfied with what they have accomplished or failed to accomplish within their life time.
-They reflect on the past, and either conclude at satisfaction or despair.